Heartland - Petra's Scotland pages

History of Scotland

There’s hardly a country where you can find history and tradition connected with the presence as perfectly as in Scotland. Contemporary witnesses of almost every epoch are ubiquitous. Nevertheless or just because of this circumstance Scotland is a modern country, which not at all stiffens in its tradition, that is rather being lived and loved.

The widespread view of Scotland is marked by clichés like bagpipes, kilts, whisky and rain, which of course can be found in Scotland, too. But there’s still more to discover. To understand contemporary Scotland, a view back into the fascinating history of this country is not to be missed.

With the following chronological table I would like to give you a small insight into the Scottish history. I also have primarily put on the events seeming important to me particularly and will regularly update the site with more detailed explanations and descriptions (to persons and events/battles).

To make it easier for you to use I have divided the timeline into 2 pages:

part 1: 2800 mio. B.C. - 1658 A.D.
part 2: 1660 - 2007 A.D. (proceed to part 2)


B.C. (before Christ)
     
2.800 mio
  Scotland was “born” down south, near the Antarctica, as part of a landmass consisting of North America, Greenland, Ireland and Norway
     
1.000 mio
  Scotland (still part of the landmass mentioned above) moved its way north (well, to be as precise as possible, the direction was North East)
England was far away, many thousand kilometres south west, as part of another continent (Europe)
     
400 mio
  The continental plates of Scotland/North America and England/Europe collide
     
300 mio
  Scotland drifts near the Equator
     
65 mio
  Scotland breaks off of North America
     
2 mio
  First Ice Age, lasting until approx. 11.000 BC with several intervals of global warming
   
top
11.000
  Loch Lomond was built by end of Ice Age
     
7.000
  First human inhabitants during the Mesolithic period (Middle Stone Age). The people were nomadic. No evidence of permanent settlements has been found yet.
("Mesolithic": Mesos=Middle, Lithos=Stone. Mesolithic Age is a period of transition from Old Stone Age to the New Stone Age)
     
6.000
  Britain separates from Europe
   
top
3.100
  Skara Brae village, on the west coast of the Orkney mainland , built.
The stone houses still contain stone beds, cupboards and dressers. It is now in the care of Historic Scotland.
     
2.900
  Maes Howe tomb, Orkney, built
(a large mound containing burial chambers. It was built about 100 years earlier than the pyramids of Egypt and is still the finest chambered tomb in North-West Europe. Norsemen broke into the mound in the 12th century and carved many runic inscriptions upon the walls of the chamber).
     
2.200
  The “Bronze Age”
   
top
700
  The “Iron Age”
     
200
  First brochs built
 
A.D. (Anno Domini - in the year of our Lord)
     
79
  Romans (general Agricola) invade Scotland
   
83
  Roman legionaries (5000 men) defeat Caledonian tribes (30000) led by Calgacus at Mons Graupius (probably Bennachie, Aberdeenshire, Grampian mountains), the first recorded battle in Scotland’s history
     
122
  Hadrian’s wall (named after the Roman Emperor Hadrian) was built between the Solway Firth in the West and the River Tyne in the East to exclude “the Barbarians”
     
142
  Romans build Antonine Wall (named after the Emperor Antonius Pius) between Forth and Clyde. The wall was built not of stone but of turf
   
top
297
  First mention of the Picts in historical records
     
367
  Picts and Scots raided Hadrians’s Wall
     
397
  St. Ninian founded a monastery known as Candida Casa at Whithorn.
Less than 20 years after his death the world-famous “Latinus Stone” was erected at Whithorn
   
top
563
  St. Columba of Ireland establishes a monastery on Iona
     
538
  Angles capture Din Eidyn and rename it Edinburgh
     
650
  St. Cuthbert becomes a monk at Old Melrose at the age of 16
     
687
  St. Cuthbert died and was burried on the island of Lindisfarne (Holy Island)
   
top
793
  First Viking (Norway) raid on the coast of Britain at Lindisfarne
followed by raids on the Northern Isles (794), Iona and Skye (795), the Hebrides (798) and again on Iona (802 and 806)
     
843
  Union between Scots and Picts under Kenneth MacAlpin
     
849
  St. Columba’s relics were brought from Iona to Dunkeld
     
954
  Scots (King Indulf) capture Edinburgh
   
top
1018
  Battle of Carham - Scots defeat English at Carham
     
1040
  Macbeth killed Duncan and seized the throne
     
1057
  Macbeth killed at Lumphanan
     
1070
  Malcolm III marries his second wife, Margaret - later St. Margaret hence St. Margaret’s Chapel at Edinburgh Castle - a Saxon princess
   
top
1072
  William “the Conqueror” invades Scotland
     
1093
  Malcolm III “Canmore” (Gaelic “Ceann Mòr” = Great Chief) and his eldest son Edward were killed whilst fighting in Northumberland
     
1098
  Scotland formally cedes Hebrides to Norway
   
top
1136
  David I (son of Malcolm III and Margaret) takes control of Cumberland, Westmorland and Northumberland. He was king in Scotland for 29 years but he was king not only of Scotland but of northern England also. David I died in 1153
     
1153
  Malcolm IV succeeded his grandfather David I at the age of 12 until he died in 1165
     
1157
  Henry II of England reclaims northern counties
     
1164
  Somerled, “King of the Isles”, killed at Renfrew
   
top
1165
  Malcolm IV died and was succeeded by his brother, William I, called “the lion” on account of his symbol (the red lion rampant on a yellow field)
     
1263
  Alexander III defeats Haakon IV of Norway at the Battle of Largs
     
1266
  Treaty of Perth sees Hebrides returned to Scotland
     
1286
  Alexander III killed in fall from horse in Fife. His granddaughter Margaret, "The Maid of Norway" becomes Queen of Scots at the age of 3
   
top
1290
  Margaret, “the Maid of Norway” dies suddenly in Kirkwall
     
1292
  John Balliol is selected over Robert Bruce and is crowned King of Scotland at Scone.
     
1295
  pact signed between Scotland and France - the “auld alliance”, that offers military support for Scotland by France. Edward I of England saw this as a declaration of war. The Treaty of Paris was actually the start of the wars of independence
     
1296
  Edward I “The Hammer of the Scots” invades and deposes King John
   
top
1297
  William Wallace and Andrew Moray lead Scots to victory at Stirling Bridge
     
1298
  William Wallace defeated at battle of Falkirk
     
1305
  William Wallace executed in London
     
1306
  Robert Bruce crowned king at Scone but then forced to flee
   
top
1307
  Robert Bruce returns

Edward I of England dies near Carlisle

     
1314
  Robert Bruce defeats English at the battle of Bannockburn
     
1320
  The “Declaration of Arbroath”
     
1328
  Treaty of Edinburgh brings first War of Independence to a close
     
1329
  Robert Bruce dies peacefully at Cardross
   
top
1332
  Scots defeated at Dupplin Moor.

Edward Balliol crowned king at Scone

     
1334
  David II (Bruce) taken to France for his safety
     
1341
  David II returns and immediately raids northern England
     
1346
  David II captured near Durham and taken to Tower of London
     
1349
  the pestilence (“Black Death”) killing 200.000 people (out of 1 mio)
   
top
1356
  David II released from captivity, bringing Wars of Independence to a close
     
1371
  Robert II (a grandson of Robert the Bruce) becomes king - first of the “Royal Stewarts” and started the 300-year long dynasty of the Royal House of Stewart
     
1385
  Richard II supported by a French army invades eastern Borders and puts it to the fire and sword
   
top
1406
  Prince James (future James I) captured by English and sent to Tower of London
     
1411
  Battle at Harlaw (near Aberdeen), where Highlanders under Donald MacDonald , the Lord of the Isles fought against Lowlanders under Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar (Donald’s cousin). It was the first fought between Highlander and Lowlander
     
1412
  Scotland’s first University, St. Andrews, founded
   
top
1424
  James I returns to Scotland
     
1437
  James I assassinated by his own nobles in Perth
     
1451
  Glasgow University founded
     
1457
  Football and golf banned by James II
   
top
1460
  James II killed at siege of Roxburgh when one of his own artillery pieces explodes.

James III received the crown at the age of 8

     
1468/69
  James III marries 10 year old Margaret, Princess of Norway and Denmark.

Orkney and Shetland transferred from Norwegian to Scottish sovereignty

     
1470
  James III made Edinburgh the capital of Scotland
   
top
1472
  Scotland’s first archbishopric established at St. Andrews
     
1482
  Berwick-Upon-Tweed ceded to England for good
     
1493
  Lord of the Isles forfeited and Lordship finally suppressed
     
1495
  Aberdeen University founded
   
top
1503
  James IV weds Margaret Tudor of England, daughter of Henry VII “marriage of the thistle and the rose”
     
1508
  First Scottish books printed in Edinburgh
     
1513
  James IV and 5000 Scots killed at Flodden.

James V is crowned at the age of 1

   
top
1528
  Patrick Hamilton, a Lutheran preacher, burnt at St. Andrews for heresy - start of “the Reformation”
     
1532
  College of Justice (Court of Session) established
     
1540
  Crown of Scotland made by John Mosman for James V
     
1542
  Scots lose the Battle of Solway moss. James V dies after the battle and right after his wife, Mary of Guise, gave birth to a daughter, Mary
   
top
1543
  Mary is crowned Queen of Scots at Stirling Castle, at the age of nine months
     
1544
  Start of the “War of the Rough Wooing”, when Henry VIII wanted to impose a marriage between his son Edward and Mary
     
1547
  10.000 Scots killed at Pinkie
     
1548
  Young Mary Queen of Scots sent to France for her safety, where she remained for 13 years
   
top
1558
  Fourteen year old Mary Queen of Scots marries fifteen year old Francoise, Dauphin of France in Paris
     
1559
  John Knox returns to Scotland and preaches against Catholicism
     
1560
  Parliament passes Act of Reformation.

First General Assembly meets

     
1561
  Mary Queen of Scots returns from exile to begin her personal reign
   
top
1567
  Mary forced to abdicate in favour of her infant son, James VI.

First Gaelic book - "Knox’s Liturgy” published

     
1581
  First kirk presbyteries established
     
1582
  Edinburgh University founded
   
top
1590
  North Berwick witches burned at stake in Edinburgh
Between 1560 and 1700 almost 2000 Scots, most of them women, were executed for withchraft
     
1600
  1 January adopted as start of calendar year (previously 25 March, Feast of the Annunciation
     
1603
  Elisabeth I. of England died and James VI of Scotland (son of Mary Queen of Scots) becomes James I of England also - the “Union of the Crowns”
   
top
1608
  Scottish “plantation” of Ulster begins
     
1613
  Elisabeth, daughter of James I. married German elector Friedrich V. (both at the age of 16), a guarantee for the English parliament against the Roman Catholic inclinations of the house Stuart. The wedding took place in London, while it was celebrated with a big feast at the castle of Heidelberg
     
1621
  The colonisation of Nova Scotia begins with parcels of land being sold to wealthy and willing Scots by Lord Stirling, who received title to Nova Scotia
   
top
1622/23
  Country devastated by famine
     
1625
  James I. died after reigning for 57 years. No king of Scots had ever reigned so long.

Charles I. becomes king

     
1626
  Charles I. marries Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV of France
   
top
1633
  Charles I. returned to Scotland, the land of his birth, for his coronation in Edinburgh
     
1638
  National Covenant signed
     
1643
  Solemn League and Covenant agreed with English Parliament
     
1644/45
  Marquis of Montrose’s campaigns on behalf of Charles I
   
top
1649
  Charles I is beheaded by Oliver Cromwell despite protests from the Scots.

The Scots parliament proclaims Charles II as King.

The English Parliament declares England to be a Republic

     
1650
  Cromwell invades Scotland.

The Scots form a defensive line within Edinburgh

     
1651
  Charles II crowned king at Scone but forced into exile shortly after
   
top
1653
  Scotland and England formally joined - the “United Commonwealth”
     
1658
  Cromwell dies
     
     


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